February 12, 2018

LHQ 3.0

The language history questionnaire (LHQ) is an important tool for assessing the linguistic background and language proficiency of multilingual or second language learners. Previously we developed a generic LHQ based on the most commonly asked questions in published studies (Li, Sepanski & Zhao, 2006) and provided a web-based interface (LHQ 2.0) that has flexibility in functionality, accuracy in data recording, and privacy for users and data (Li, Zhang, Tsai & Puls, 2014). LHQ3 (version 3) introduces new functions, developed in response to many comments/requests from users. One important improvement is the addition of an automatic scoring system, in that the new interface automatically calculates aggregated scores for language proficiency, language dominance, language immersion, and multilingual language diversity levels. In the latest LHQ3 version, we have added the automatic data visualization function and the new multi-language function. Finally, LHQ is now compatible with popular online subject recruiting tools such as Prolific.

A description of the aggregated scores and the multi-language diversity scores can be found here.

Examples of graphic representations of LHQ3 results can be found here.

Step 1:
The investigator or experimenter completes the sign-up process (by clicking on Sign in/Sign up LHQ3 at the top of the Home page), and then create a new Questionnaire by receiving a unique Experiment ID (with an individualized URL) associated with his or her experiment. Investigator will also receive an email contains the participant ID number roster in CSV.

Step 2:
The investigator can send this Questionnaire URL and participant ID number (from the roster) to the experiment’s participants and ask them to complete the experiment. The participants complete the LHQ online through the individualized URL, and data(along with participant numbers) are automatically and cumulatively saved.

Step 3:
The investigator accesses the account management page (by clicking on Sign in/Sign up LHQ3) to download or delete the experiment data. The investigator can also temporally disable the access for the participant to access the questionnaire by clicking the “Disable” button and re-enable the experiment by clicking the “Enable” button.

Step 4:
At any time point, the investigator can download a composite score as well as an aggregate score sheet. The composite score function includes overall proficiency scoring, dominance scoring, as well as immersion scoring of each participant, and allows investigators to designate the weighting they wish to attribute to the different aspects of language usage (speaking, writing, reading, and listening) to customize the aggregate scoring. The overall aggregate score compiles the average, range, and standard deviation for each of the scores across participants. To access such functions, select the composite scores of interest, enter the weighting distribution, and click on the download button to download the scoring sheets.

Please cite the references in any publications that report data based on the LHQ:
“Li, P., Zhang, F., Yu, A., Zhao, X. (2019). Language History Questionnaire (LHQ3): An enhanced tool for assessing multilingual experienceBilingualism: Language and Cognition. ”
“Li, P., Zhang, F., Tsai, E., Puls, B. (2014). Language history questionnaire (LHQ 2.0): A new dynamic web-based research toolBilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(3), 673-680. ”

If you have any questions or need further information about the questionnaire, please contact Zhexiao Guo or Ping Li. We welcome your feedback, comments, and suggestions.

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